OG.13.SC全解终极版1.0版

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OG SC summary 红色部分是最重要的!必须掌握的 咖啡色和黑色是普通知识点!OG的基本 1.1. In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously. (A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, (B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and (C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, (D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, (E) In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously. 思路:理解句子意思@waterblue01:cd A declaring分句去掉以后句子没有主句 B 同A C 去掉having分句,that后since从句缺谓语 D fail 一般现在时和declared时态不一致 E 正确 2.Manufacturers rate batteries in watt-hours; if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer the battery can be expected to last. (A) if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer (B) rating the watt-hour higher, it is that much longer (C) the higher the watt-hour rating, the longer (D) the higher the watt-hour rating, it is that much longer that (E) when the watt-hour rating is higher, the longer it is 思路:idiom,the more, the more A 不符合the more,the more 搭配,the longer。

就显得很奇怪 B 同A,很奇怪 C 正确 the more X, the more Y. D 同A E 同A 1

总结: “the+比较级,the+比较级”意为“越„„越„„” ,本题这里为省略,具体看下面解释: 表示一方的程度随着另一方的变化而变化,其中的两个 the 都是副词,而不是冠词。

本文拟从以下几个方面对 此句式作一浅析,希望能帮助同学们加深理解。

一、对主、从句的理解 1.在通常情况下,前一个“the +比较级”相当于比较状语从句,后一个“the + 比较级”为主句。

例如: The more I read the book,the more I liked it. 这本书我越看越喜欢。

The more difficult the questions are, the less likely he is able to answer them. 问题越难,他回答出来的可能性就越小。

2.有时前一个“the +比较级”相当于条件状语从句,后一个“the + 比较级”为主句,从句不可用将来时。

例如: The earlier you start,the sooner you’ll be back. 你出发得越早,回来得就越早。

The more you practise, the better you can understand. 你练习得越多,理解得就越透。

3.除上述情况外,还存在着主句在前,从句在后的特殊情况。

此时,主句中的“ the+比较级”多放在主句 之末。

此时,要按汉语习惯先译从句,再译主句。

例如: He is the busier, the happier he feels. 他越忙越高兴。

You climb the higher, the farther you will see. 你爬得越高,就看得越远。

二、语序 一般说来,从句中的主语与谓语必须是正常语序,不能是倒装语序。

主句可根据需要调整,既可采用正常 语序,也可采用倒装语序。

例如: The noisier they were, the happier was their mother. 孩子越吵闹,他们的母亲就越高兴。

The harder you work, the more progress you will get. 你越努力,进步就越快。

三、省略 1.在通常情况下,如果主、从句中的谓语动词是联系动词 be,而且主语非代词时,此时 be 常常省略。

例 如: The better the food (is), the more popular a restaurant gets. 食物越可口,饭店的生意就越红火。

The higher the tree (is), the stronger the wind (is). 树大招风。

The more exercise you take, the stronger you are. 锻炼得越多,身体越强壮。

(注意:此句中的联系动词 are 不能省略。

) 2.对于主句在前,从句在后的特殊情况,主句中形容词或副词前的 the 常常省略。

例如: 2

You practise (the) more, the better you can understand. 你练习得越多,你理解得就越透。

I knew him (the) more, the more I liked him. 我越了解他就越喜欢他。

3.主、从句的主语和谓语动词在叙述的场合有默契,可酌情省略。

例如: The sooner (you finish it), the better (it will be). 你完成得越快越好。

The more (you know), the more dangerous (it will be). 你知道得越多,处境就越危险。

3. Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopesthat there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount ofspending the recovery might not last. (A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally (B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally (C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being (D)has raised hopes that a recovery is finally (E) raised hopes for a recovery finally 思路:under way 正在进行中 A 主语 a surge 谓语用单数 has;主系表结构本身可以表示状态,不需要改成 there be ;而且 there be+抽象名 词错误;表示状态的形容词,一般以主系表形式表现出来,表达状态。

此时,不再需要 there be 结构强调这种 状态 B raised 时态不准确,现在完成时比一般过去时能更好的跟一般现在时结合,这里表示has raised 对后面 economists say 有影响; there being 永远错; finally应该修饰一个动词,不能作形容词修饰recovery ; hopes后一般加that 强调整体 C had raised 错误,没用过去时与之对应;being多余;finally应该修饰一个动词,不能作形容词修饰 recovery D: bingo , that 是hopes的同位语,a recovery is finally非常简洁 E hopes后一般加that 强调整体,这里是同位语; finally应该修饰动词;raised 时态不准确,现在完成时比一 般过去时能更好的跟一般现在时结合 总结: 1.现在完成时比一般过去时能更好的跟一般现在时结合; 2.偏向于用 that 从句,而不是跟介词短语 : hypothesis, idea, hope, expectation, suggestion, belief, discovery, evidence, indication, and report ==> that 是同位语! 3.主系表结构,也可以用来表示,A 处于一种什么状态。

此时,不再需要 there be 来强调这个状态。

4. At the end of the 1930s, Duke Ellington was looking for a composer to assist him—someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, But mirroring his eccentric writing style as well in order to finish the many pieces he had started but never completed. (A) someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style as well in order to finish (B) someone who could not only arrange music for his successful big band, but also mirror his eccentric writing style in order to finish 3

(C) someone who not only could arrange music for his successful big band, but also to mirror his eccentric writing style in finishing (D) that being someone who could not only arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style for finishing (E) being someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirror his eccentric writing style as well, finishing 思路:除 B 以外,都是 not only…but also 搭配不对称,简单题 A B 正确 C D E 5.Of all the vast tides of migration that have sweptthrough history, maybe none is more concentrated asthe wave that brought 12 million immigrants ontoAmerican shores in little more than three decades. (A) maybe none is more concentrated as (B) it may be that noneis more concentrated as (C) perhaps it is none that ismore concentrated than (D) maybe it isnone that was more concentratedthan? (E)perhaps none was more concentrated than 思路: OG 原话:perhaps 和 maybe 是可以互换的,但是 perhaps 更加正式一点, ; A 在比较结构中时态发生变化 be 动词不能省略,反向考点:如果省略了 be 动词,那证明比较对象时态一致。

wave 后省略了 was 因为从句中是 brought, 所以这里应该用一般过去 was ; more as ……错误,改成 more than B 选项,看见 more 应该是想到和 than 搭配,而不是 as;wave 后省略了 was 因为从句中是 brought, 所以这 里应该用一般过去 was ; it may be that 啰嗦 C 选项,more…than…结构表示一种比较,后面用了“brought“过去式意为着 wave 后面省略的是 was,所以 than 前面对应的应该是过去时 was ; 。

长句子中,消除不必要的 be, 消除强调句成分 D:长句子中,消除不必要的 be, 消除强调句成分; it 应该指代某些东西,但是这里没有,所以强调句 E :结构清晰;more …than 搭配正确 总结: 1. 形式主/宾语 it: 无名词指代对象,用于指代 to do 结构或 that 从句 ===>只能用于指代这两种结构,什么 being„,for doing„都不能被 it 指代! 形式宾语 make /feel/believe/find it +adj +to do/ that 从句 It 用于指代 to do 结构或 that 从句 EG: it is clear that ……it is essential to do…. 4

2. 但是 it 后面加名词 it只能指代to do ,不能是that 从句 On account of a law passed in 1933, making it a crime punishable by imprisonment that a United States citizen hold gold in the form of bullion or coins, immigrants found that on arrival in the United States they had to surrender all of the gold they had brought with them. 这个句子是错误的, it 不能指代 that 后面一整句。

6. Diabetes, together with its serious complications,ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death,surpassed only by heart disease and cancer. (A) ranks as the nation’s third leading cause ofdeath, surpassed only (B) rank as the nation’s third leading cause of death,only surpassed (C) has the rank of the nation’s third leading causeof death, only surpassed (D) are the nation’s third leading causes of death,surpassed only (E) have been ranked as the nation’s third leadingcauses of death, only surpassed 思路: A:看到 Diabetes, 虽然是 s 结尾, 但不一定是复数词, 从后边的 its 我们知道, 他是一个单数次, 意为糖尿病 (出 现判断不出单复数的时候两种情况:1 找未划线部分是否有代词提示 2 看是否有冠词,猜:一般有冠 词的是单数,无关词的猜复数,但是各种病的名词除外) , B: rank 不能修饰单数主语 Diabetes; only 错误地修饰 surpassed,而没有修饰 by heart disease,错 only 错误地修饰 surpassed,而没有修饰 by heart C: ranks 可以用动词表达,就别用名词形式 has the rank; disease,错 D: are 不能修饰单数主语 Diabetes ; E: have 不能修饰单数主语 Diabetes ; only 错误地修饰 surpassed,而没有修饰 by heart disease Rank as 被看做 complication [,kɔmpli'keiʃən] n. 混乱;复杂;复杂化;[医]并发症 总结: 1.未划线部分给出指代词单复数,做题信息,作为优先考虑点! ! !===>回想:parallelism 未划线部分给出的 平行信息也要作为优先考虑点! ! 副词要紧邻其修饰的对象,两种情况: A) 不要把副词放在动词或其他成分前,而是要放在副词想限定修饰的成分前 B) 不要把副词与名词放在一起,而远离了其修饰的形容词等 2. Prefer a verb. VAN===> Verb > Adjective(adverb)> Noun简洁 3.副词的修饰位置: even修饰比较级时,放在比较级之前。

ever放在助动词之后。

only、first 放在被强调的成分之前,alone放在被强调的成分之后。

7.The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called 5

ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye. (A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it (B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they (C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they (D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it (E) called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it 思路:主谓一致,独立主格 A having 的动作发出者为structure,help应为单数 B having 的动作发出者为structure, C that are called 应省略为called,one’s doing 不佳,they为it D help为单数 E 正确 8. In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of thePharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors forcleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled bytourists, which raised its humidity to such levels sothat salt from the stonewas crystallizing and funguswas growingon the walls. (A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, whichraised its humidity to such levels so that saltfrom the stone was crystallizing (B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled,thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize (C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, whichhad raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize (D) because of moisture that was exhaled bytourists raising the humidity within them to levelsso high as to make the salt from the stonecrystallize (E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raisedthe humidity within them to such levels thatsalt from the stone was crystallizing 思路: A 选项,its 指代复数名词 chambers 不对,而且 due to 没有 because 好,因果关系不明确。

Due to 后面需要 加直接原因;such levels so that 连用错误 B: its 指代复数名词 chambers 不对,而且 due to 没有 because 好,因果关系不明确; the stone would crystallize 不平行, …and fungus was growing…; raising 修饰有歧义, 有伴随 colsed 的嫌疑; C:the stone would crystallize…and fungus was growing 不平行;them 好像指代了 tourists,因为 tourists 在主语的位置上;such that 错误,such 不能直接加 that; were exhaling 有错误~不是过去 时里面持续发生的一种状态,不需要用 were doing 的形式来表示,表达的是旅客过去 一直在呼出湿气,到现在还没结束。

D: because of不能清晰的表达原因,后面需要加直接原因;because of sth. doing (because of doing) 6

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